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    drf-jwt手动签发与校验,drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页

    今日

    """
    1、drf-jwt手动签发与校验
    2、drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页 => 针对与群查接口
    """

    签发token

    源码入口
    # 前提:给一个局部禁用了所有 认证与权限 的视图类发送用户信息得到token,其实就是登录接口
    
    # 1)rest_framework_jwt.views.ObtainJSONWebToken 的 父类 JSONWebTokenAPIView 的 post 方法
    #       接受有username、password的post请求
    # 2)post方法将请求数据交给 rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer 处理
    #       完成数据的校验,会走序列化类的 全局钩子校验规则,校验得到登录用户并签发token存储在序列化对象中
    核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer的validate(self, attrs)方法
    def validate(self, attrs):
        # 账号密码字典
        credentials = {
            self.username_field: attrs.get(self.username_field),
            'password': attrs.get('password')
        }
        if all(credentials.values()):
            # 签发token第1步:用账号密码得到user对象
            user = authenticate(**credentials)
            if user:
                if not user.is_active:
                    msg = _('User account is disabled.')
                    raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
                # 签发token第2步:通过user得到payload,payload包含着用户信息与过期时间
                payload = jwt_payload_handler(user)
                # 在视图类中,可以通过 序列化对象.object.get('user'或者'token') 拿到user和token 
                return {
                    # 签发token第3步:通过payload签发出token
                    'token': jwt_encode_handler(payload),
                    'user': user
                }
            else:
                msg = _('Unable to log in with provided credentials.')
                raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
        else:
            msg = _('Must include "{username_field}" and "password".')
            msg = msg.format(username_field=self.username_field)
            raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
    手动签发token逻辑
    # 1)通过username、password得到user对象
    # 2)通过user对象生成payload:jwt_payload_handler(user) => payload
    #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
    # 3)通过payload签发token:jwt_encode_handler(payload) => token
    #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler

    校验token

    源码入口
    # 前提:访问一个配置了jwt认证规则的视图类,就需要提交认证字符串token,在认证类中完成token的校验
    
    # 1)rest_framework_jwt.authentication.JSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 父类 BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 authenticate 方法
    #       请求头拿认证信息jwt-token => 通过反爬小规则确定有用的token => payload => user
    核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.authentication.BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication的authenticate(self, request)方法
    def authenticate(self, request):
        """
        Returns a two-tuple of `User` and token if a valid signature has been
        supplied using JWT-based authentication.  Otherwise returns `None`.
        """
        # 带有反爬小规则的获取token:前台必须按 "jwt token字符串" 方式提交
        # 校验user第1步:从请求头 HTTP_AUTHORIZATION 中拿token,并提取
        jwt_value = self.get_jwt_value(request)
        # 游客
        if jwt_value is None:
            return None
        # 校验
        try:
            # 校验user第2步:token => payload
            payload = jwt_decode_handler(jwt_value)
        except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
            msg = _('Signature has expired.')
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
        except jwt.DecodeError:
            msg = _('Error decoding signature.')
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
        except jwt.InvalidTokenError:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed()
        # 校验user第3步:token => payload
        user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
    
        return (user, jwt_value)
    手动校验token逻辑
    # 1)从请求头中获取token
    # 2)根据token解析出payload:jwt_decode_handler(token) => payloay
    #       from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
    # 3)根据payload解析出user:self.authenticate_credentials(payload) => user
    #       继承drf-jwt的BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication,拿到父级的authenticate_credentials方法

    案例:实现多方式登陆签发token

    models.py
    from django.db import models
    
    from django.contrib.auth.models import AbstractUser
    class User(AbstractUser):
        mobile = models.CharField(max_length=11, unique=True)
    
        class Meta:
            db_table = 'api_user'
            verbose_name = '用户表'
            verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
    
        def __str__(self):
            return self.username
    serializers.py
    from rest_framework import serializers
    from . import models
    import re
    
    # 拿到前台token的两个函数: user => payload => token
    # from rest_framework_jwt.settings import api_settings
    # jwt_payload_handler = api_settings.JWT_PAYLOAD_HANDLER
    # jwt_encode_handler = api_settings.JWT_ENCODE_HANDLER
    from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
    from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
    
    
    # 1) 前台提交多种登录信息都采用一个key,所以后台可以自定义反序列化字段进行对应
    # 2) 序列化类要处理序列化与反序列化,要在fields中设置model绑定的Model类所有使用到的字段
    # 3) 区分序列化字段与反序列化字段 read_only | write_only
    # 4) 在自定义校验规则中(局部钩子、全局钩子)校验数据是否合法、确定登录的用户、根据用户签发token
    # 5) 将登录的用户与签发的token保存在序列化类对象中
    class UserModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
        # 自定义反序列字段:一定要设置write_only,只参与反序列化,不会与model类字段映射
        usr = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
        pwd = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
        class Meta:
            model = models.User
            fields = ['usr', 'pwd', 'username', 'mobile', 'email']
            # 系统校验规则
            extra_kwargs = {
                'username': {
                    'read_only': True
                },
                'mobile': {
                    'read_only': True
                },
                'email': {
                    'read_only': True
                },
            }
    
        def validate(self, attrs):
            usr = attrs.get('usr')
            pwd = attrs.get('pwd')
    
            # 多方式登录:各分支处理得到该方式下对应的用户
            if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
            elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
            else:
                user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
            user_obj = user_query.first()
    
            # 签发:得到登录用户,签发token并存储在实例化对象中
            if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                # 签发token,将token存放到 实例化类对象的token 名字中
                payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                # 将当前用户与签发的token都保存在序列化对象中
                self.user = user_obj
                self.token = token
                return attrs
    
            raise serializers.ValidationError({'data': '数据有误'})
    views.py
    #实现多方式登陆签发token:账号、手机号、邮箱等登陆
    # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
    # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类
    # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
    # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
    import re
    from . import serializers, models
    from utils.response import APIResponse
    
    from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
    from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
    
    class LoginAPIView(APIView):
        # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
        authentication_classes = []
        permission_classes = []
        def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类,规则:账号用usr传,密码用pwd传
            user_ser = serializers.UserModelSerializer(data=request.data)
            # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
            user_ser.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
            # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
            return APIResponse(token=user_ser.token, results=serializers.UserModelSerializer(user_ser.user).data)
    
        # "一根筋" 思考方式:所有逻辑都在视图类中处理
        def my_post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            usr = request.data.get('usr')
            pwd = request.data.get('pwd')
            if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
            elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
            else:
                user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
            user_obj = user_query.first()
            if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                return APIResponse(results={'username': user_obj.username}, token=token)
            return APIResponse(data_msg='不可控错误')

    案例:自定义认证反爬规则的认证类

    authentications.py
    import jwt
    from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication
    from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
    from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
    class JWTAuthentication(BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication):
        def authenticate(self, request):
            jwt_token = request.META.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION')
    
            # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt
            token = self.parse_jwt_token(jwt_token)
    
            if token is None:
                return None
    
            try:
                # token => payload
                payload = jwt_decode_handler(token)
            except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
                raise AuthenticationFailed('token已过期')
            except:
                raise AuthenticationFailed('非法用户')
            # payload => user
            user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
    
            return (user, token)
    
        # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt,auth为前盐,jwt为后盐
        def parse_jwt_token(self, jwt_token):
            tokens = jwt_token.split()
            if len(tokens) != 3 or tokens[0].lower() != 'auth' or tokens[2].lower() != 'jwt':
                return None
            return tokens[1]
    views.py
    from rest_framework.views import APIView
    from utils.response import APIResponse
    # 必须登录后才能访问 - 通过了认证权限组件
    from rest_framework.permissions import IsAuthenticated
    # 自定义jwt校验规则
    from .authentications import JWTAuthentication
    class UserDetail(APIView):
        authentication_classes = [JWTAuthentication]
        permission_classes = [IsAuthenticated]
        def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            return APIResponse(results={'username': request.user.username})

    admin使用自定义User表:新增用户密码密文

    from django.contrib import admin
    from . import models
    
    # 自定义User表,admin后台管理,采用密文密码
    from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin
    
    class MyUserAdmin(UserAdmin):
        add_fieldsets = (
            (None, {
                'classes': ('wide',),
                'fields': ('username', 'password1', 'password2', 'mobile', 'email'),
            }),
        )
    
    admin.site.register(models.User, MyUserAdmin)

    群查接口各种筛选组件数据准备

    models.py
    class Car(models.Model):
        name = models.CharField(max_length=16, unique=True, verbose_name='车名')
        price = models.DecimalField(max_digits=10, decimal_places=2, verbose_name='价格')
        brand = models.CharField(max_length=16, verbose_name='品牌')
    
        class Meta:
            db_table = 'api_car'
            verbose_name = '汽车表'
            verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
    
        def __str__(self):
            return self.name
    admin.py
    admin.site.register(models.Car)
    serializers.py
    class CarModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
        class Meta:
            model = models.Car
            fields = ['name', 'price', 'brand']
    views.py
    # Car的群查接口
    from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
    
    class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
        queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
        serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
    urls.py
    url(r'^cars/$', views.CarListAPIView.as_view()),

    drf搜索过滤组件

    views.py
    from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
    
    # 第一步:drf的SearchFilter - 搜索过滤
    from rest_framework.filters import SearchFilter
    
    class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
        queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
        serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
    
        # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
        filter_backends = [SearchFilter]
    
        # 第三步:SearchFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?search=...
        search_fields = ['name', 'price']
        # eg:/cars/?search=1,name和price中包含1的数据都会被查询出

    drf排序过滤组件

    views.py
    from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
    
    # 第一步:drf的OrderingFilter - 排序过滤
    from rest_framework.filters import OrderingFilter
    
    class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
        queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
        serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
    
        # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
        filter_backends = [OrderingFilter]
    
        # 第三步:OrderingFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?ordering=...
        ordering_fields = ['pk', 'price']
        # eg:/cars/?ordering=-price,pk,先按price降序,如果出现price相同,再按pk升序

    drf基础分页组件

    pahenations.py
    from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination
    
    class MyPageNumberPagination(PageNumberPagination):
        # ?page=页码
        page_query_param = 'page'
        # ?page=页面 下默认一页显示的条数
        page_size = 3
        # ?page=页面&page_size=条数 用户自定义一页显示的条数
        page_size_query_param = 'page_size'
        # 用户自定义一页显示的条数最大限制:数值超过5也只显示5条
        max_page_size = 5
    views.py
    from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
    
    class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
        # 如果queryset没有过滤条件,就必须 .all(),不然分页会出问题
        queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
        serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
        
        # 分页组件 - 给视图类配置分页类即可 - 分页类需要自定义,继承drf提供的分页类即可
        pagination_class = pagenations.MyPageNumberPagination
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